Black coffee most of us drink every day is in fact a blend of several different species of a coffee plant. Behind the simple name COFFEE there is actually a blend of two plants belonging to the same botanical group but of different species known as Coffea Arabica and Coffea Robusta.
Coffea Arabica is a high quality coffee with remarkable properties. It makes 75-80% of world’s coffee production. This coffee variety is grown on the high plateaus at 600 to 2000 m above sea level. In natural surroundings, it grows on up to 6 metres tall trees but the coffee trees on the plantations are usually pruned to a height of 3 metres for easier harvesting. The first blossom appears 3 years after planting and the first harvest takes place a year afterwards. The maximum fruit yield is not reached until the sixth season. One coffee tree produces 1-3 kg of coffee and the main harvest season in Brazil takes place from May to August.
Both in Serbia and in the world, the best-known varieties of Arabica are Minas and Santos, named after their cultivation areas in Brazil. Besides these, there is a large number of other varieties of coffee – Sigri from New Guinea, offspring of Jamaican Blue Mountain Coffee; Mexico Maragogip, with biggest beans and lowest caffeine content; mild Costa Rica; Ethiopia Moka Harar with chocolate-like aroma; Kenya AA Jumbo, the best African Arabica coffee.
Coffea Robusta is grown in tropical areas of Africa, India, Indonesia and Vietnam, at lower elevations of up to 600 metres above sea level. This is a dominant variety of coffee on the African continent due to its easier cultivation, faster growth and resistance to coffee berry diseases and pests. Robusta takes up 20-25% of each production and is significantly cheaper. It differs from Arabica in size and appearance of the beans – they are light brown in colour, rotund and irregular in shape. Robusta beans are also smaller than Arabica beans and poorer in appearance for the preparation process doesn’t include previous washing and is carried out by applying mechanical separation from the hull. Robusta coffee contains larger quantity of impure ingredients and black beans. Pure Robusta coffee drink lacks the enjoyable taste and cannot without blending be used for preparation of a coffee drink. Pure Robusta coffee drink tastes pungent and sour and has no distinct aroma but is used in blends for its extract and high caffeine content (2.3-3.5%) give the drink rich flavour. Robusta is blended with Arabica but at a smaller proportion. It adds full flavour to the drink whereas the strong black coffee aroma comes from Arabica. Large quantities of Robusta are utilized in the coffee extract production. The major Robusta producers and exporters are: Vietnam, Indonesia, Uganda, India and Ivory Coast.
Arabica beans participate in black coffee blends in higher percentage than Robusta and the coffee taste depends on the mutual proportion of these two varieties. Arabica is a "finer" coffee, adding the pleasant aroma to the drink while Robusta gives black coffee full flavour due to its pungency and rich caffeine content. Robusta contains 2-2.5% of caffeine to Arabica’s 1-1.5%. No coffee, when consumed "pure", possesses an enjoyable flavour. Only by blending two or more varieties an enjoyable flavour can be achieved. It is essential how and in what ratio different varieties of coffee from different climates are blended. Some coffees are more aromatic, some are stronger and some less strong. Some coffees possess authentic acidity or sharpness and each climate gives diverse flavour, aroma and quality to coffee. Grand coffee blends are made in accordance with the taste of our respective consumers. Years of experience in producing and creating coffee blends taught our experts about the consumers’ preferences and which aromas of the black drink they like best. The basis of each Grand coffee blend is the premium quality Brazilian Arabica and it makes the major component of each blend. Other components represent variations and additions regarding the aroma and flavour which remain secret of both Grand quality and our top technologists constantly engaged in maintaining and improving the quality of the coffee.
Our aim is to improve and gain new knowledge about coffee, in order to facilitate our consumers to enjoy only the finest blends of this black drink in the future.
Four different types of coffee are consumed worldwide on a daily basis: black coffee, espresso coffee, filter coffee and instant coffee, but there are also many variations composed by adding a number of different ingredients like milk, cream, water, etc.
Turkish coffee - a term habitually used in the Balkans to depict black coffee, even though the preparation manner in Turkey to a large extent differs from ours. This coffee differs from other types of coffee for the black grounds it leaves behind at the bottom of the cup. It is prepared by putting a few teaspoons of fresh ground coffee in a pot and adding boiling water over it. The pot is removed from the fire as soon as the thick foam lifts. After the coffee settles for a little while, the coffee is ready for serving into cups. If desired, sugar or milk may be added in the coffee.
Espresso coffee - short coffee drink of about 40ml per cup that can be consumed in one sip. Espresso is made from special coffee varieties (Robusta and Arabica) and prepared by using an espresso machine where hot water is forced through coarse ground coffee under very high pressure and the whole process lasts approximately 30 seconds.
Many find this quantity insufficient and the so-called double espresso became trendy. Extended espresso is the term for a regular espresso with larger amount of water or milk. Besides milk, cocoa and sweet cream may also be added.
Filter coffee – a coarse ground coffee drink prepared in filter coffee machines. Hot water is poured over the special filter bags containing coffee and the main difference in regard to espresso is that no high-pressure water is applied. Filter coffee is basically less strong coffee than espresso and is the most popular coffee drink in America.
Instant coffee - coffee that, thanks to special coffee bean processing, instantly dissolves in hot water. Instant coffee comes in various combinations (with dehydrated milk, sugar, different flavours) and it is suitable for quick preparation.
*Instant coffee was invented in 1906 by the chemist George C. Washington, an Englishman living in Guatemala. This passionate coffee-drinker noticed a powdery build-up in his favourite silver coffee pot. It aroused his interest and he began experimenting, eventually producing dried coffee crystals similar to what we today call instant coffee. Washington later emigrated to the United States and his brand was called Red E Coffee. There are two methods of instant coffee production: freeze-drying and spray-drying.